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BLOG ON CAMLCITY.ORG: Plasma

PlasmaFS

A serious distributed filesystem - by Gerd Stolpmann, 2011-10-18

A few days ago, I released Plasma-0.4.1. This article gives an overview over the filesystem subsystem of it, which is actually the more important part. PlasmaFS differs in many points from popular distributed filesystems like HDFS. This starts from the beginning with the requirements analysis.

A distributed filesystem (DFS) allows it to store giant amounts of data. A high number of data nodes (computers with hard disks) can be attached to a DFS cluster, and usually a second kind of node, called name node, is used to store metadata, i.e. which files are stored and where. The point is now that the volume of metadata can be very low compared to the payload data (the ratios are somewhere between 1:10,000 to 1:1,000,000), so a single name node can manage a quite large cluster. Also, the clients can contact the data nodes directly to access payload data - the traffic is not routed via the name node like in "normal" network filesystems. This allows enormous bandwidths.

The motivation for developing another DFS was that existing implementations, and especially the popular HDFS, make (in my opinion) unfortunate compromises to gain speed:

  • The metadata is not well protected. Although the metadata is saved to disk and usually also replicated to another computer, these "safety copies" lag behind. In the case of an outage, data loss is common (HDFS even fails fatally when the disk fills up). Given the amount of data, this is not acceptable. It's like a local filesystem without journaling.
     
  • The name node protocol is too simplistic, and because of this, DFS implementations need ultra-high-speed name node implementations (at least several 10000 operations per second) to manage larger clusters. Another consequence is that only large block sizes (several megabytes) promise decent access speeds, because this is the only implemented strategy to reduce the frequency of name node operations.
     
  • Unless you can physically separate the cluster from the rest of the network, security is a requirement. It is difficult to provide, however, mainly because the data nodes are independently accessed, and you want to avoid that data nodes have to continuously check for access permissions. So the compromise is to leave this out in the DFS, and rely on complicated and error-prone configurations in network hardware (routers and gateways).

I'm not saying that HDFS is a bad implementation. My point is only that there is an alternative where safety and security are taken more seriously, and that there are other ways to get high speed than those that are implemented in HDFS.

Using SSDs for transacted metadata stores

PlasmaFS starts at a different point. It uses a data store with full transactional support (right now this is PostgreSQL, just for development simplicity, but other, and more light-weight systems could also fill out this role). This includes:
  • Data are made persistent in a way so that full ACID support is guaranteed (remember, the ACID properties are atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability).
  • For keeping replicas synchronized, we demand support for two-phase commit, i.e. that transactions can be prepared before the actual commit with the guarantee that the commit is fail-safe after preparation. (Essentially, two-phase commit is a protocol between two database systems keeping them always consistent.)
This is, by the way, the established prime-standard way of ensuring data safety for databases. It comes with its own problems, and the most challenging is that commits are relatively slow. The reason for this is the storage hardware - for normal hard disks the maximum frequency of commits is a function of the rotation speed. Fortunately, there is now an alternative: SSDs allow at present several 10000 syncs per second, which is two orders of magnitude more than classic hard disks provide. Good SSDs are still expensive, but luckily moderate disk sizes are already sufficient (with only a 100G database you can already manage a really giant filesystem).

Still, writing each modification directly to the SSD limits the speed compared to what systems like HDFS can do (because HDFS keeps the data in RAM, and only writes now and then a copy to disk). We need more techniques to address the potential bottleneck name node:

  • PlasmaFS provides a transactional view to users. This works very much like the transactions in SQL. The performance advantage is here that several write operations can be carried out with only one commit. PlasmaFS takes it that far that unlimited numbers of metadata operations can be put into a transaction, such as creating and deleting files, allocating blocks for the files, and retrieving block lists. It is possible to write terabytes of data to files with only a single commit! Applications accessing large files sequentially (as, e.g., in the map/reduce framework) can especially profit from this scheme.
     
  • PlasmaFS addresses blocks linearly: for each data node the blocks are identified by numbers from 0 to n-1. This is safe, because we manage the consistency globally (basically, there is a kind of join between the table managing which blocks are used or free, and the table managing the block lists per file, and our safety measures allow it to keep this join consistent). In contrast, other DFS use GUIDs to identify blocks. The linear scheme, however, allow it to transmit and store block lists in a compressed way (extent-based). For example, if a file uses the blocks 10 to 14 on a data nodes, this is stored as "10-14", and not as "10,11,12,13,14". Also, block allocations are always done for ranges of blocks. This greatly reduces the number of name node operations while only moderately increasing their complexity.
     
  • A version number is maintained per file that is increased whenever data or metadata are modified. This allows it to keep external caches up to date with only low overhead: A quick check whether the version number has changed is sufficient to decide whether the cache needs to be refreshed. This is reliable, in contrast to cache consistency schemes that base only on the last modification time. Currently this is used to keep the caches of the NFS bridge synchronized. Especially, applications accessing only a few files randomly profit from such caching.

I consider the map/reduce part of Plasma especially as a good test case for PlasmaFS. Of course, this map/reduce implementation is perfectly adapted to PlasmaFS, and uses all possibilities to reduce the frequency of name node operations. It turns out that a typical running map/reduce task contacts the name node only every 3-4 seconds, usually to refill a buffer that got empty, or to flush a full buffer to disk. The point here is that a buffer can be larger than a data block, and that only a single name node transaction is sufficient to handle all blocks in the buffer in one go. The buffers are typically way larger than only a single block, so this reduces the number of name node operations quite dramatically. (Important note: This number (3-4) is only correct for Plasma's map/reduce implementation which uses a modified and more complex algorithm scheme, but it is not applicable to the scheme used by Hadoop.)

Speed

I have done some tests with the latest development version of Plasma. The peak number of commits per second seems to be around 500 (here, a "commit" is a transaction writing data that can include several data update operations). This test used a recently bought SSD, and ran on a quad-core server machine. It was not evident that the SSD was the bottleneck (one indication is that the test ran only slightly faster when syncs were turned off), so there is probably still a lot of room for optimization.

Given that a map/reduce task needs the name node only every ≈0.3 seconds, this "commit speed" would be theoretically sufficient for around 1600 parallely running tasks. It is likely that other limits are hit first (e.g. the switching capacity). Anyway, these are encouraging numbers showing that this young project is not on the wrong track.

The above techniques are already implemented in PlasmaFS. More advanced options that could be worth an implementation include:

  • As we can maintain exact replicas of the primary name node (via two-phase commit), it becomes possible to also use the replicas for read accesses. For certain types of read operations this is non-trivial, though, because they have an effect on the block allocation map (essentially we would need to synchronize a certain buffer in both the primary and secondary servers that controls delayed block deallocation). nevertheless, this is certainly a viable option. Even writes could be handled by the secondary nodes, but this tends to become very complicated, and is probably not worth it.
     
  • An easier option to increase the capacity is to split the file space, so that each name node takes care of a partition only. A user transaction would still need a uniform view on the filesystem, though. If a name node receives a request for an operation it cannot do itself, it automatically extends the scope of the transaction to the name node that is responsible for the right partition. This scheme would also use the two-phase commit protocol for keeping the partitions consistent. I think this option is viable, but only for the price of a complex development effort.

Given that these two improvements are very complicated to implement, it is unlikely that it is done soon. There is still a lot of fruit hanging at lower branches of the tree.

Delegated access control checks

Let's quickly discuss another problem, namely how to secure accesses to data nodes. It is easy to accept that the name nodes can be secured with classic authentication and authorization schemes in the same style as they are used for other server software, too. For data nodes, however, we face the problem that we need to supervise every access to a data block individually, but want to avoid any extra overhead, especially that each data access needs to be checked with the name node.

PlasmaFS uses a special cryptographic ticket system to avoid this. Essentially, the name node creates random keys in periodical intervals, and broadcasts these to the data nodes. These keys are secrets shared by the name and data nodes. The accessing clients get only HMAC-based tickets generated from the keys and from the block ID the clients are granted access to. These tickets can be checked by the data nodes because these nodes know the keys. When the client loses the right to access the blocks (i.e. when the client transaction ends), the corresponding key is revoked.

With some additional tricks it can be achieved that the only communication between the name node and the data node is a periodical maintenance call that hands out the new keys and revokes the expired keys. That's an acceptable overhead.

Other quality-assuring features

PlasmaFS implements the POSIX file semantics almost completely. This includes the possibility of modifying data (or better, replacing blocks by newer versions, which is not possible in other DFS implementations), the handling of deleted files, and the exclusive creation of new files. There are a few exceptions, though, namely neither the link count nor the last access time of files are maintained. Also, lockf-style locks are not yet available.

For supporting map/reduce and other distributed algorithm schemes, PlasmaFS offers locality functions. In particular, one can find out on which nodes a data block is actually stored, and one can also wish that a new data block is stored on a certain node (if possible).

The PlasmaFS client protocol bases on SunRPC. This protocol has quite good support on the system level, and it supports strong authentication and encryption via the GSS-API extension (which is actually used by PlasmaFS, together with the SCRAM-SHA1 mechanism). I know that younger developers consider it as out-dated, but even the Facebook generation must accept that it can keep up with the requirements of today, and that it includes features that more modern protocols do not provide (like UDP transport and GSS-API). For the quality of the code it is important that modifying the SunRPC layer is easy (e.g. adding or changing a new procedure), and does not imply much coding. Because of this it could be achieved that the PlasmaFS protocol is quite clean on the one hand, but is still adequately expressive on the other hand to support complex transactions.

PlasmaFS is accessible from many environments. Applications can access it via the mentioned SunRPC protocol (with all features), but also via NFS, and via a command-line client. In the future, WebDAV support will also be provided (which is an extension of HTTP, and which will ensure easy access from many programming environments).

Check Plasma out

The Plasma homepage provides a lot of documentation, and especially downloads. Also take a look at the performance page, describing a few tests I recently ran.

Gerd Stolpmann works as O'Caml consultant. Currently looking for new jobs as consultant!
This web site is published by Informatikbüro Gerd Stolpmann
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